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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 56-60

Serum bladder tumor antigen levels in subjects with sickle cell anemia: A preliminary report

1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria
2 Department of Haematology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria
3 Department of Clinical Services, Initiative For Good Health (IGH) in Nigeria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
John C Aneke
Department of Haematology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, PMB 5025, Anambra State
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DOI: 10.4103/summ.summ_31_16

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Background: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) has been linked with the occurrence of some tumors, including that of the urological system; the serum bladder tumor antigen has been shown to be a surrogate marker for bladder carcinoma. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate serum bladder tumor antigen in SCA subjects in comparison with disease severity and levels in subjects with other hemoglobin phenotypes. Subjects and Methods: A total of 50 subjects were randomly recruited which comprised of 20 homozygous SCA subjects in steady state, 20 heterozygous hemoglobin AS (HbAS), and 10 hemoglobin AA (HbAA) subjects. Five milliliters of venous blood was collected from each participant for hemoglobin type confirmation and estimation of bladder tumor antigen levels, using cellulose acetate hemoglobin electrophoresis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Disease severity scoring was based on the earlier report of Okocha et al. Results: The mean serum level of bladder tumor antigen was significantly lower in SCA compared with HbAS and HbAA subjects (23.12 ± 3.75 ng/ml vs. 29.60 ± 3.80 ng/ml and 34.65 ± 4.05 ng/ml, P < 0.001, respectively). Correspondingly, the mean serum bladder tumor antigen levels were significantly lower in HbAS compared with HbAA subjects (P < 0.001). Serum bladder tumor antigen level was not significantly correlated with disease severity in subjects with SCA (r = −0.267, P = 0.318). Conclusion: The low serum levels of bladder tumor antigen in subjects with SCA may indicate a lower risk of bladder carcinoma.

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