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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 153-155

Assessment of creatinine and urea blood levels in healthy volunteers

1 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shandi University, Shandi, Sudan
2 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan
3 Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan
4 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Science and Technology, Omdurman, Sudan

Date of Web Publication16-May-2014

Correspondence Address:
Shaza M. Ahamed
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shendi University, Shendi
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DOI: 10.4103/1858-5000.132609

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Introduction: Endogenous creatinine and urea are protein metabolism. Their levels in the blood reflect status of kidney Function. Aim: This study aimed to assess the serum creatinine and urea levels normal Sudanese adults Females in the University of Gezira, to identify influence of age, tribe and menstrual cycle on the level of their parameters. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 270 females of ages ranged between 18-40 year's. Blood samples were collected from all of them after their consents. Serum samples were taken and creatinine and urea levels were analyzed using specterophotometeric methods. Results: The results showed that the (mean ± SD) serum creatinine and Urea levels were (0.82 ± 0.10 mg/dl) and (20.2 ± 4.7 mg/dl) respectively. Serum urea but not creatinine levels were significantly different (P = 0.04) for the different ages. Serum creatinine and urea levels varied with ethnic group and menstrual cycle. Conclusion: The results indicated that the mean levels of both these protein metabolites were within the ranges of their values for the normal kidney function.

Keywords: Creatinine, female volunteers, Sudanese, urea

How to cite this article:
Ahamed SM, Modawe GA, Elsanni B, Ballal MA. Assessment of creatinine and urea blood levels in healthy volunteers. Sudan Med Monit 2013;8:153-5

How to cite this URL:
Ahamed SM, Modawe GA, Elsanni B, Ballal MA. Assessment of creatinine and urea blood levels in healthy volunteers. Sudan Med Monit [serial online] 2013 [cited 2017 Apr 18];8:153-5. Available from: http://www.sudanmedicalmonitor.org/text.asp?2013/8/3/153/132609

  Introduction Top

Proteins are the most abundant components of human body and occupy a central position in architecture and functioning of living matter 1 , Dietary and intracellular proteins in the body are metabolized into their building blocks, amino acids. Arginine, glycine and methionine are metabolized to from creatine which is primarily a high energy phosphate compound ulfilized for muscular contraction. 2 The level of creatinine in the blood is a good measure of the overall kidney function. When the kidneys are not normally working for any reason they become unable to excrete creatinine in urine, and as a result, the level of creatinine in the blood rises. 3 Blood urea estimation is one of the renal function tests. A significantly elevated plasma urea concentration is indicative of impaired glomerular function. Urea can be determined directly in plasma, serum and most other biological flinds. 4 The objective of this study to assess the serum creatinine and urea levels in normal adult Sudanese Female.

  Materials and Methods Top

All of the females participating in the study were bled and their serum creatinine and urea levels were determined spectrophotometrically.


270 normal adults Sudanese females from Gezira University aged 18-40 years participated in the study for the determination of their serum creatinine and urea levels. 70 females were having their menstrual cycles, three were pregnant and 17 were lactating.


5 ml blood were collected from each subjects. The blood was centrifuged at 5000 r.p.m for 10 min. serum creatinine and urea levels in each sample were estimated spectrophotometerically.

Statistical analysis

All the results were analyzed by statistical analysis, using statistical package of social science (SPSS) to a significance value of (P < 0.05).

  Results and Discussions Top

The mean values of serum creatinine and urea levels for the 270 subjects were 0.82 ± 0.10 mg/dl and 20.2 ± 4.7 mg/dl.

The mean value for serum creatinine of the normal adult Sudanese adult females in University Gezira was 0.82 ± 0.10 mg/dl range of 0.3-1.25 mg/dl in the study subjects [Table 1]. This value apparently agrees with values that were quoted by Ateig 5 in Sudanese children, Erasmus et al.6 in Melanesian women and Jones et al.7 in United State women.

Mean serum creatinine concentrations were not significantly different between the four groups studied [Table 1] in agreement with Yoshid 8 who assessed the effect of aging on renal function in the thirties to sixties years groups women. Erasmus et al.6 , estimated the mean values and reference ranges of serum creatinine in their groups of Melanesian women and he found that there was no significant difference between the three groups. Feifeld 9 , found that the serum creatinine has not necessarily increased with time in the very elderly, even in those with mild azotemia, Fehrman 10 , conducted study on renal function in the elderly and serum creatinine didn't correlate with age. Aono et al.11 , estimated normal ranges of serum creatinine levels in old subjects and a young control group and he found (SCM) levels didn't correlate with age. In contrast the results of our study were not in agreement with those of Jones et al. 7 who found differences in mean serum creatinine (SCM) levels at different ages.
Table 1: Mean concentrations of serum creatinine (mg/dl) of study subjects

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The mean value for serum urea of normal adult Sudanese females in Gezira University was 20.2 ± 4.7 mg/dl and with a range of 10.8-33.0mg/dl [Table 2].
Table 2: Mean concentrations of serum urea (mg/dl) of study subjects

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Mean serum urea concentration were significantly different between the four age groups studied [Table 2] in agreement with Ateig 5 , who estimated the normal values for serum urea in Sudanese children and he found that the urea values were significantly affected by age, where the values have decreased with increasing age. Yoshida (8) , who assessed the effect of aging on renal function in healthy women reported that, women over the age of 50 years had significantly higher (BUN). Ano et al. (11) , in a study estimated the normal ranges of BUN levels in old subjects and a young control group, showed that the mean BUN levels in the elderly subjects were significantly higher than those in the control groups. Fehrman-Ekholm and Skeppholm 10 , studying the renal function in the elderly, reported a strong correlation between serum urea levels and age.

The results of all published studies have demonstrated the increase of serum urea with age. This could be attributed to a decrease of body protein reserve by age leading to a decline of urea excretion. [12]

In this study serum urea was significantly increased with increasing age, however this was limited by the fact that no subjects with more than 40 years of age were included in the study.

  References Top

1.White A, Hanle P, Smith EL. Principle of Biochemistry. 5 th ed. Toronto: McGraw Hill Book Company; 1973. p. 87.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Benzi G. Is there a rationale for the use of creatine either as nutritional supplementation or drug administration in humans participating in a sport? Pharmacol Res 2000;41:255-64.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Wgss M, Rima KD. Ceratine and creatinine metabolism. Am Physiol Soc 2000;80:1107-213.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Wootton ID, Freeman H. Micro Analysis in Medical Biochemistry. 6 th ed. London: Churchill Living Stone Publication; 1982. p. 68.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Atieg IS. Selected anthroponetric measurement and selected biochemical and hematological parameter in apparently healthy Sudanese School Children in Khartoum State. Bibliography. MD of Pathology Khartoum: University of Khartoum; 1995. p. 211.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Erasmus RT, Ray U, Nathaniel K, Dowse G. Reference ranges for serum creatinine and urea in elderly coastal Melanesians. P N G Med J 1997;40:89-91.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Jones CA, McQuillan GM, Kusek JW, Eberhardt MS, Herman WH, Coresh J, et al. Serum creatinine levels in the US population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Kidney Dis 1998;32:992-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Yoshida K. The effects of aging on renal function test. Nihon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi 1994;46:1311-4.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Feinfeld DA, Keller S, Somer B, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Carvounis CP, Aronson M, et al. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen over a six-year period in the very old. Creatinine and BUN in the very old. Geriatr Nephrol Urol 1998;8:131-5.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Fehrman-Ekholm I, Skeppholm L. Renal function in the elderly (>70 years old) measured by means of iohexol clearance, serum creatinine, serum urea and estimated clearance. Scand J Urol Nephrol 2004;38:73-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Aono T, Matsubayashi K, Kawamoto A, Kimura S, Doi Y, Ozawa T. Normal ranges of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels in the community-dwelling elderly subjects aged 70 years or over - Correlation between age and renal function. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 1994;31:232-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Ganong WF. Review of Medical Physiology. 21 st ed. USA: McGraw Hill Companies; 2003. p. 298.  Back to cited text no. 12


  [Table 1], [Table 2]


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