Indian Journal of Human Genetics
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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 116

Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Advances in molecular appraoch

1 Department of Neuropediatrics, Ibn Rochd Hospital, Casablanca, Morocco
2 Department of Genetics, Ibn Rochd Hospital, Casablanca, Morocco
3 Department of Neurology, Ibn Rochd Hospital, Casablanca, Morocco

Date of Web Publication4-Jun-2013

Correspondence Address:
Afaf Benitto
Department of Neuropediatrics, Ibn Rochd Hospital, Casablanca
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0971-6866.112931

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How to cite this article:
Benitto A, Hamzi K, Itri M, Slassi I, Nadifi S. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Advances in molecular appraoch. Indian J Hum Genet 2013;19:116

How to cite this URL:
Benitto A, Hamzi K, Itri M, Slassi I, Nadifi S. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Advances in molecular appraoch. Indian J Hum Genet [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 May 24];19:116. Available from:

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common muscular dystrophy affecting one in 3,500 live male births. [1] DMD is an X-linked recessive disease that affects boys. The disease results from degeneration and loss of muscle fibers. [1] The natural history of DMD typically affected boys is becoming wheelchair dependant about age 12. [2] The DMD gene (DMD) is the biggest human gene (2.5 Mbp). Once the gene was identified, it was established that affected boys were lacking dystrophin, the protein product of the gene. [2] The most common molecular defect in the DMD gene, accounting for approximately 65% of cases of DMD is deletion of one or more exons. Duplication accounts for 6-10% of cases. [2] The minimum level of diagnosis testing that should be undertaken is a screening that detects the majority of exonic deletions. The most basic method still in regular use involves multiplex PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) of the exons known to be most commonly deleted (Chamberlain et al. 1988). [3] The multiplex PCR is relatively simple; However, it does not detect duplications, does not characterize all deletion breakpoints, and cannot be used for carrier testing of females. Quantitative analysis of all exons of the gene has brought an improvement in mutation detection rate, as it may detect all exon scale deletions as well as duplications. It also fully delineate the exon boundaries of detected mutations and detect mutations in carrier females. Among the quantitative methods available, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification is now the most widely used [4] . An important point to emphasize on is that with both methods that we've just described, any apparent mutation indicated by an abnormal reading from a single probe must be confirmed by an alternative method, since there is a possibility of a single nucleotide polymorphism under a probe or primer binding site. Finally, oligonucleotide-based array comparative genomic accounts for the last generation of quantitative analysis technics. Also known as Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA) is increasingly used in DMD prenatal diagnosis throughout the world. However, routine practices DMD diagnosis are very different among centers. [5]

   References Top

1.Biggar WD, Harris VA, Eliasoph L, Alman B. Long-term benefits of deflazacort treatment for boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy in their second decade. Neuromuscul Disord 2006;16:249-55.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Daftary AS, Crisanti M, Kalra M, Wong B, Amin R. Effect of long-term steroids on cough efficiency and respiratory muscle strength in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Pediatrics 2007;119:e320-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Chamberlain JS, Gibbs RA, Ranier JE, Nguyen PN, Caskey CT. Deletion screening of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus via multiplex DNA amplification. Nucleic Acids Res 1988;16:11141-56.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Abbs S, Tuffery-Giraud S, Bakker E, Ferlini A, Sejersen T, Mueller CR. Best practice guidelines on molecular diagnostics in Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophies. Neuromuscul Disord 2010;20:422-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Rooryck C, Toutain J, Cailley D, Bouron J, Horovitz J, Lacombe D, et al. Prenatal diagnosis using array-CGH: A French experience. Eur J Med Genet. 2013 Feb 20. pii: S1769-7212 (13) 00056-6.  Back to cited text no. 5


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